How Do Plants Grow in Space?

Zinnia flower grew in Veggie onboard the ISS

Space exploration has long captivated the human imagination, representing one of the most ambitious frontiers of scientific and technological achievement. Amidst the expanse of stars and galaxies, humanity’s endeavors in the cosmos continue to unveil mysteries and opportunities. Among the remarkable feats achieved in space, perhaps one of the most intriguing is the cultivation of plants in the unique and challenging environment beyond Earth’s atmosphere.

This article embarks on a journey to understand a question that has intrigued scientists and space enthusiasts alike: How do plants grow in space?

As we begin this exploration, we shall navigate through the challenges posed by the absence of Earth’s gravitational pull, delve into the altered growth patterns exhibited by plants in space, and uncover the innovative experiments conducted on the International Space Station (ISS). Ultimately, we aim to shed light on the intricate relationship between plants and space, demonstrating how humanity is turning the inhospitable into the habitable, one green leaf at a time.

The Microgravity Challenge

Radishes Growing in Space: 27 Days in 10 Seconds. Video: NASA.

Effects of Microgravity on Plant Growth

The unique conditions of microgravity present a substantial challenge for plants. In this weightless environment, the established rules of terrestrial growth no longer apply. Plants, which have evolved to rely on gravity as a constant reference point, must adapt to the absence of this guiding force.

In microgravity, plants often exhibit altered growth patterns. They lack the typical cues for determining “up” and “down,” causing their stems and leaves to grow in unexpected directions. This lack of orientation can pose challenges for their structural development and their ability to efficiently photosynthesize.

Coping with Altered Growth Patterns

Despite the challenges posed by microgravity, plants are remarkably adaptable. Over time, they have demonstrated a capacity to adjust their growth strategies in response to the unfamiliar conditions of space. This adaptability is a testament to the resilience of life on Earth and its ability to survive and thrive in a wide range of environments.

One notable adaptation is the tendency of plants to rely more heavily on light cues for orientation in the absence of gravity. They may grow towards the light source on the spacecraft, taking advantage of any available light to optimize photosynthesis. These adaptations are a testament to the remarkable plasticity of plant biology.

The Role of Roots in Space Farming

Roots play a crucial role in plant growth and development, both on Earth and in space. In microgravity, plants must grapple with the challenge of anchoring themselves without the aid of gravity’s pull. This necessitates innovative approaches to root development, ensuring that plants can access essential nutrients and water.

To address this challenge, scientists and astronauts have explored various cultivation techniques, including hydroponics and aeroponics. These methods enable plants to grow without traditional soil, providing them with nutrients and water in controlled environments. Such techniques are integral to successful space farming endeavors, as they help plants establish their roots and maintain a healthy, sustainable growth trajectory.

Photosynthesis in space operates similarly to on Earth, as plants still require light, water, and carbon dioxide. Growth chambers on spacecraft use specially designed LED lighting to provide the necessary spectrum for photosynthesis.

Experiments on the International Space Station (ISS)

Mizuna lettuce growing aboard the International Space Station
Mizuna lettuce growing aboard the International Space Station. Image: NASA.

The ISS as a Laboratory for Space Farming

The International Space Station (ISS) has emerged as a pivotal platform for conducting experiments related to plant growth in the microgravity environment of space. This state-of-the-art space laboratory, a collaborative effort involving multiple countries, provides researchers with an exceptional opportunity to study the behavior of plants beyond Earth’s atmosphere.

Crops Grown in the Microgravity Environment

Over the years, the ISS has hosted a range of experiments involving the cultivation of various crops. Researchers have tended to crops such as wheat, lettuce, and zinnias, monitoring their growth and development in microgravity. These experiments aim to understand how different plant species respond to the absence of gravity and how they can be cultivated successfully in space.

The cultivation of these crops on the ISS serves a dual purpose: it provides astronauts with fresh, homegrown food sources and contributes to our broader understanding of space farming techniques.

Insights Gained from ISS Experiments

The experiments conducted on the ISS have yielded a wealth of valuable data regarding plant behavior in space. Researchers have discovered how plants adapt their growth patterns, alter their responses to light cues, and adjust their nutrient uptake strategies in the absence of gravity. These findings have far-reaching implications for future space farming endeavors.

Moreover, the controlled environment of the ISS enables scientists to compare the growth of plants in space with their terrestrial counterparts, providing critical baseline data for understanding the effects of microgravity. This comparative approach enhances our understanding of plant biology and informs the development of innovative space farming techniques.

Can Space-Grown Plants Be Consumed by Astronauts?

Cabbage growing in a Veggie unit
Cabbage growing in a Veggie unit. Image: NASA – Public Domain.

Yes, space-grown plants can be consumed by astronauts. NASA’s Veggie experiment, for example, has successfully grown and harvested vegetables like lettuce in space for consumption on the ISS.

The Vegetable Production System, or Veggie for short, is a NASA program designed to grow fresh vegetables and plants in the microgravity environment of the International Space Station (ISS). Veggie is part of NASA’s efforts to develop sustainable life support systems for long-duration space missions, such as missions to Mars, where astronauts will need to grow their own food.

Benefits of Space Farming

Fresh Food for Astronauts

One of the primary benefits of space farming is its capacity to provide astronauts with a sustainable source of fresh, nutritious food during extended space missions. Traditional space provisions have relied heavily on pre-packaged and preserved foods, which, while essential for survival, often lack the variety and freshness that fresh produce offers.

Through space farming, astronauts gain access to a diverse array of homegrown fruits, vegetables, and herbs. This not only enhances the nutritional quality of their diets but also provides a psychological boost by connecting them with the familiar tastes of Earth. Fresh food contributes to the overall well-being and morale of astronauts during their missions.

Air Purification and Oxygen Generation

Plants play a crucial role in maintaining a habitable environment within spacecraft and future space habitats. They act as natural air purifiers by absorbing carbon dioxide (CO2) and releasing oxygen (O2) through the process of photosynthesis. This biological mechanism helps regulate the levels of CO2 and O2, ensuring a continuous supply of breathable air for astronauts.

Additionally, the removal of excess CO2 by plants contributes to the overall stability of life support systems on spacecraft. This dual function of air purification and oxygen generation underscores the vital role of space farming in sustaining life beyond Earth.

Reducing Dependence on Earth Supplies

Space missions often require extensive logistical planning to transport essential supplies, including food, from Earth to the spacecraft. This dependence on Earth-based resources can be costly, logistically challenging, and environmentally impactful.

Space farming offers a solution by reducing the reliance on Earth supplies. By cultivating crops in space, astronauts can offset the need for frequent resupply missions. This not only streamlines mission logistics but also lessens the environmental footprint associated with space exploration.

Furthermore, as space farming technology advances, it holds the potential to support longer-duration missions and the establishment of self-sustaining space colonies. This vision of sustainability aligns with humanity’s aspirations to explore and inhabit distant celestial bodies while also promoting responsible stewardship of space resources.

Various types of plants have been grown in space, including lettuce, wheat, radishes, mustard greens, and zinnias. These plants have been part of experiments to understand their growth in microgravity.


In conclusion, the journey of understanding how plants grow in space has unveiled a wealth of knowledge and remarkable achievements. Scientists, engineers, and astronauts have collaboratively tackled the challenges posed by microgravity, harnessing innovative techniques to cultivate crops beyond Earth’s bounds. This endeavor has not only expanded our comprehension of plant biology but also propelled us closer to the realization of sustainable life in space.

Through rigorous experimentation on the International Space Station (ISS), researchers have gained invaluable insights into how plants adapt and thrive in the unique space environment. These insights extend to altered growth patterns, light cues, and nutrient uptake strategies, all of which contribute to our growing expertise in space agriculture.

How Do Plants Grow in Space at a Glance

Do plants grow in space?

Yes, plants can grow in space. Through experiments conducted on spacecraft like the International Space Station (ISS), scientists have shown that plants can thrive in the microgravity environment of space with the right conditions and technologies.

How do plants grow in space without gravity?

In microgravity, plants rely on other environmental cues like light for orientation. Special growth chambers on spacecraft provide controlled conditions, including temperature, humidity, and nutrient delivery, to support plant growth.

What challenges do plants face in space?

Plants in space encounter challenges such as limited space, controlled nutrient delivery, managing water in microgravity, and dealing with potential microbial contamination. Scientists work to address these issues for successful space farming.

Are there any benefits to growing plants in space for Earth?

Research on space-grown plants can yield insights into plant biology, environmental control systems, and sustainable agriculture practices that can have applications on Earth, particularly in extreme environments and controlled environment agriculture.